Sustainicum Collection

Consus The aim of the project is to establish a regional science-society network for sustainability innovations in Albania and Kosovo in order to strengthen the connection and collaboration of institutions in the field of higher education, research and practice.

Formation of carbonic gas during the fermentation process of beer(Resource ID: 321)

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The aim of the project is for the students to participate in the process of the formation of carbonic gas during beer fermentation, and the importance this process as a whole i.e. until the final beer filling and the business progresses. The students will have the opportunity to be actively involve during whole process with the employees, and will learn basic knowledge of carbonic gas formation.

Formation of carbon dioxide during the fermentation process in beer

Beer is a refreshing drink with low alcohol percentage and carbonic gas. The raw materials for beer production are malt, water, humulus- lupulus and yeast. The sugars contained in beer must be turned into alcohol and carbonic gas with the help of the yeast enzyme. The increasing temperature influences the fermentation rate. The space of contact with the yeast cells is also of great importance. The higher percentage of yeast cells enhances the contact surface. The fermentation speed depends also on the genetic attributes of various kinds of yeast. The most important process in fermentation is the transformation of sugar into alcohol and carbonic gas. The carbonic gas is first absorbed by the beer and when it is full, it forms small bubbles mounting the surface and thus creating the foam. This fermentation process is introduced in the following table.

Filling the beer with CO2 during the fermentation process.

The beer wort is turned into beer during the fermentation process. Among the most notable characteristics that can be easily measured is the specific weight. The specific weight during the fermentation process changes for two reasons׃ first, during fermentation, the sugar ferments into alcohol and carbonic gas. The transformation of sugar into alcohol is accompanied by the reduction of the specific weight and second, the carbon acid, being a gas evaporates while alcohol remains and this lowers the liquid density. The beginning of fermentation starts the moment yeast is inserted into the wort.

During the fermentation process the beer must be filled with CO2, if it contains 0.32 % CO2 we call it a dead beer - beer without life. The beer must contain at least 0.4% CO2.

Results during the process of CO2   formation

Formation of carbonic gas during the process of beer fermentation is of great importance for the beer quality. The carbonic gas that is formed during the fermentation process, is at first very unclean. When the measurement of the dirt is done, and  it must be is at least 99.5 % clean, the process will continue. In the sector of carbonic gas collection, the CO2 is collected, so as to avoid buying it from other sources. The carbonic gas during the fermentation process contains 3 – 3.5 % CO2, while they can be collected  at 1.5 kg per hl. A nice and refreshing beer must contain no less than 0.4 % carbonic gas.

Integration of Social Stakeholders
University Haxhi Zeka from Peja, more precisely the Agro-Business Faculty has a memorandum with the Factory A.S.”Birra Peja” from Peja and in compliance with this, the staff of the factory will interact and will include the students in the process of collecting the carbonic gas. This interaction will be associated with the explanation of whole process by the working staff to the students.
• active participation of the students in the study visit will influence better theoretical understanding .
• all the operators will understand and become aware of the importance of each production phase
• Work discipline increase for example in the regularity of filling in of the working papers and work journals.
• Students will have the opportunity to express or propose any production innovation .
• The managers of the factory might profit of any student’s innovation or idea.
• Every producer must have his secrets therefore it is necessary to trust between students and the host factory.
• Leaking of information outside the factory i.e. the various production recipes or any deficiency of the process is prohibited. Everything needs to be discussed within the factory with its staff and representatives of the university faculty.
Learning Outcomes
The students will have the opportunity to check the cleanliness level without forgetting any phase to observe,
Respecting fully and rigorously the preset cleanliness conditions;
The importance of staff awareness and students must note the importance of cleanliness, respecting the guidelines and reflecting on any changes
Possibility of implementation of HACCP and ISO standards ;
How Carbon dioxide is collected
Relevance for Sustainability
• students will learn about the importance of the process of beer production
• students will learn how to efficiently collect the carbon dioxide
• student will learn that a qualitative business means sustainability
Related Teaching Resources
No specific previous knowledge / related resources required
Preparation Efforts
Preparation Efforts Description
– Teaching preparation 4 - 6 hours. – Identification of the enterprises to host the study visit – freedom of movement and expression in the enterprise – Respecting the time of the visit – various discussions – Presentation of work results and recommendations
Seminar presentation
Credit/Certification Description
Sources and Links

1. Dipl.CHem. T. SCHőn    Dr.Ing. H. M. Anger   Dr. Ing. S. SCHildbach - Chemical – Technical Analyses   Berlin  2006.

2. Dr. J. Hinrichs  -  Microbiological Lab Work    Berlin 2006.

3. J. S.Hough, D. E. Briggs–Nauqni Aspekti Sladarstva i Pivarstva, ref. f. 3-4.

4. Wolfgang  Kunze – Technology  Brewing  And  Malting  2004,  ref. f. 3-4.

5. Prof. Dr.VIRON KOLA  -  Teknologjia e prodhimit te birrës, ref. f. 3-4.

6. SEMIZ DR. ING. MAHMUD – Tehnologija  Piva, ref. f. 3-4.

7. P. M. MALCEV – Tehnologija  Slada  I  Piva, ref. f. 3-4.

8. SCHUSTER / WEINFURTNER / NARZISS – Tehnologija Proizvodnje Sladovine Pivarstvo Drugi deo, ref. f. 3-4.

9. GEA Process Engineering Division , Tuchenhagen Brewery Systems GmbH, ref. f.                        

Funded by
This teaching resource, realised within the project ConSus, has been funded with the support of the TEMPUS of the European Union. The contents reflect the views of the authors, and the European Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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Nexhdet Shala
This teaching resource is allocated to following University:
UPHZ - University of Peja "Haxhi Zeka"


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  • Excursion