Formation of carbon dioxide during the fermentation process in beer
Beer is a refreshing drink with low alcohol percentage and carbonic gas. The raw materials for beer production are malt, water, humulus- lupulus and yeast. The sugars contained in beer must be turned into alcohol and carbonic gas with the help of the yeast enzyme. The increasing temperature influences the fermentation rate. The space of contact with the yeast cells is also of great importance. The higher percentage of yeast cells enhances the contact surface. The fermentation speed depends also on the genetic attributes of various kinds of yeast. The most important process in fermentation is the transformation of sugar into alcohol and carbonic gas. The carbonic gas is first absorbed by the beer and when it is full, it forms small bubbles mounting the surface and thus creating the foam. This fermentation process is introduced in the following table.
Filling the beer with CO2 during the fermentation process.
The beer wort is turned into beer during the fermentation process. Among the most notable characteristics that can be easily measured is the specific weight. The specific weight during the fermentation process changes for two reasons׃ first, during fermentation, the sugar ferments into alcohol and carbonic gas. The transformation of sugar into alcohol is accompanied by the reduction of the specific weight and second, the carbon acid, being a gas evaporates while alcohol remains and this lowers the liquid density. The beginning of fermentation starts the moment yeast is inserted into the wort.
During the fermentation process the beer must be filled with CO2, if it contains 0.32 % CO2 we call it a dead beer - beer without life. The beer must contain at least 0.4% CO2.
Results during the process of CO2 formation
Formation of carbonic gas during the process of beer fermentation is of great importance for the beer quality. The carbonic gas that is formed during the fermentation process, is at first very unclean. When the measurement of the dirt is done, and it must be is at least 99.5 % clean, the process will continue. In the sector of carbonic gas collection, the CO2 is collected, so as to avoid buying it from other sources. The carbonic gas during the fermentation process contains 3 – 3.5 % CO2, while they can be collected at 1.5 kg per hl. A nice and refreshing beer must contain no less than 0.4 % carbonic gas.