There were three main aims of our literature review. These were (A) The effect of the LEADER programme or other programs in the case of Albania on social enterprises and rural development. (B) The effect of social enterprise activities on an area and finally, (C) The relationship between social capital and social enterprises. These will all link into the main objective of the investigation, that is to examine social enterprise activity in the Ballyhoura / Albanian regions. This objective has four sub objectives which the literature review will also help address. These sub objectives are:
- To define the levels of social enterprise activity in the region.
- To analyse the economic support of external sources to the organization.
- To examine the capability of the social enterprise to survive in the future.
- To explore the views and opinions of the various parties involved in the social enterprise. These being the users, the workers and the board of management.
We willl look at the case study of Ballyhoura. The population has declined in most of Ballyhoura from 1996 to 2002, and it has since started to increase near Limerick City. The agri-tourism scheme and the L.e.a.d.e.r programme have supported rural tourism and rural development initiatives in Ballyhoura. The L.e.a.d.e.r. program has acted as a stimulus and support to rural development, job creation, for example, through social enterprise activity throughout European Community Funds. The next section of this literature review will examine social enterprise activity in general and in Ballyhoura. A macroeconomics approach is fundamental to define the Irish economic situation; the 6th chapter, in the book “The Economy of Ireland edition 2011”, eds. O’Hagan and McIndoe-Calder, is useful to understand and describe the employment and unemployment perspectives that Ireland have had and will be facing in the future and the bottlenecks of its economy and if it will be possible to solve the problem of the labour market and possible solutions.
The comparison of different types of social enterprises was carried out by Blundell et al. in 2011 in the paper “Analyzing the growth process in social enterprises: an historical perspective”. This article is useful to value the growth of social enterprises over the time and the implications that they have for policy makers; to sum up, the authors suggested, in a historical perspective, the role of public administration that is important: to manage funds, support the initiatives giving money and to coordinate the different social enterprises with the aim to replicate them in other contexts. The literature about the SWOT analysis applied to social enterprises is a common interest; Hersen in “The executive summary about the social enterprises in Turkey” defined some aspect to take into consideration to define a SWOT scheme.
This study in the words of the writers themselves is aimed at examining the nature of the changes that occur through interactive processes in a rural community in particular they focused the study on a small urban settlement of about 2500 people, with similar sizes to some of the towns in the Ballyhoura region. This community had a history of division between long time traditional residents and newer residents. However the area is noted for its natural scenic beauty and people began to take local pride in this natural amenity they had. This brought together everybody in the community. This articles puts emphasis on society ‘learning’ from each other and can be highlighted when it is said that there is an accumulation of social capital and its members seem to have learned that there are benefits from working and talking together in differently coupled networks for common purposes. The authors present a snapshot of the complexity of interaction and its outcomes in a community. It will be interesting to see if interaction between people in Ballyhoura will effect our notion of the development of social capital here in Albania.